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Home » Gujarat Agriculture Profile » Soils of Gujarat
Alluvial Soils
Alluvial soils have been formed due to silting by the Indus river system. These soils are very deep. The rever flowing through its bed. Deposited the coarse material first giving rise to coarse sandy type of soils which are found in Banaskantha and part of Mehsana districts while comparatively finer material was deposited at a further distance near the sea. These soils are further divided as.
Alluvial sandy to sandy loam soils
Alluvial sandy loam to sandy clay loam
Coastal alluvial soils
Lateritic soils
Alluvial sandy to sandy loam soils
These soils cover the entire northern districts, namely, Banaskantha and Mehsana except its southern part and the area of Sabarkantha bordering Kheralu and Vijapur talukas of Mehsana districts. The original alluvial material in the Banaskantha and some parts of the Mehsana districts has been overlain by the sandy material which has been
brought by the winds blowing through the desert of Kutch, This sand which is impregnated with salts has imparted salinity to the areas where it has been deposited. The remnants of original parent material in small disintegrated pieces are often visible in these soils. The soils are classified as Ustipsamments and Ustifiuents.

Base saturation is much less as compared to black soils. They are apparently noncalcareous as the lime is practically absent. Soil reaction is neutral to alkaline. From fertility point of view, these soils are low in available nutrients.
Alluvial sandy loam to sandy clay loam
These soils are found in kheda and Gandhinagar districts, eastern part of Ahmedabad district,southern part of Mehsana district and western part of Vadodara district. In addition to this they are also found in lowlying areas. There are two types of soils locally known as

(I) Goradu or Gorat and
(ii) Bhatta soils.

The Goradu soils are nothing but alluvial soils of older origin, while Bhatta soils are of recent origin deposited chiefly along the banks of river. In some places even a third type of soil locally known as Besar is found which has a reddish brown colour. They are silty clay loam to clay loam in texture. The soils of this group are very deep , well drained and reddish brown in colour. They are classified as Ustifluvents. Heplaquents. Ustorthents and Ustochrepts. These soils are the most productive in the whole of the state and well supplied with due to presence of illite type of clay mineral..
Coastal alluvial soils
The soils are sandy clay loam to clay in texture. The soil reaction varies with situation ranging from neutral to highly alkaline. These soils are normally medium in fertility. These soils are classified as Halaquents, Haplaquents, Fluvaquents, Halaquepts and Haplaquepts
Lateritic soils
The true laterites in real sense of the term do not occur in Gujarat. However, in Dangs districts, with abundant forest vegetation and high annual precipitation of about 250 cm lateritic soils have developed. These soils are yellowish red in colour in the upper horizon. Colour changes to dark reddish brown in the lower horizons. The thickness of solum ranges from 22-40 cm. The surface horizon is moderately porous having weakly developed sub-angular blocky to crumb structure. The soil reaction is neutral to slightly acidic. These soils are highly susceptible to erosion. They are classified as Ustochrepts and Ustorthents.
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